Sarus Crane (Grus antigone)

Interesting :

The male and the female are almost alike. Feathers on its body are grey. Its long leg is red. The upper part of the body and the head are hairless with only skin and small red hair. There is white stain on it ears and its head. The eyes are red, the mouth is sharp and thin but not very long. It has a very good sight. In the morning and in the evening, it always makes very loud noise.

Habitat :

Has a hometown in India, Myanmar, the south of Lao, Cambodia, the south of Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Australia. HABITAT AND ECOLOGY Indian birds inhabit open wet and dry grasslands, agricultural fields, marshes and pools, while in South-East Asia and Australia the species shows a preference for dry savannah woodlands with ephemeral pools during the breeding season, frequenting open and man-made wetlands during the non-breeding season (Archibald et al. 2003). In India, the species is increasingly forced to use suboptimal rice paddies as breeding habitat because of the deterioration and destruction of its natural wetland habitat (Meine and Archibald 1996, Sundar 2009). In Australia, cattle pastures and maize stubble are important foraging habitats in the non-breeding season (J. Grant in litt. 2007). It prefers a mixture of flooded, partially flooded and dry ground for foraging, roosting and nesting. It is omnivorous, feeding on a variety of roots and tubers as well as invertebrates and amphibians. In some locations in the Indian subcontinent and in Australia, birds disperse seasonally in response to available water. Breeding in India may take place virtually year-round if conditions are suitable, but there is a major peak in July-October, with egg laying in August-September, and a much smaller peak in February-March (K. S. G. Sundar in litt. 2007). It breeds during respective wet seasons in South-East Asia and Australia, migrating to key non-breeding sites during the dry season where birds form sizeable aggregations (Archibald et al. 2003). In India and Nepal, breeding pairs maintain discrete territories, year-round in areas with an adequate water supply throughout the year, while non-breeding birds are generally found in flocks that use larger wetlands to roost (K. S. G. Sundar in litt. 2007). Successful breeding pairs generally raise one or two chicks, with three chicks being extremely rare. Flock sizes in India are a function of wetland availability with the largest flocks seen in summers when wetlands are much reduced (K. S. G. Sundar in litt. 2007).

Food :

The food is fish, shrimp, shell, polliwog, tadpole and small animals; for example, snake, rat, skink, chameleon, tendril, crop, nut grass, and paddy.

Behavior :

Seeks for the food in the field or the patch of grass and swamp. It seeks for the food in pairs or in a small group. It is the animal which never change or separate from its couple. It seeks for the food near each other. If will fly and follow each other to everywhere. If its couple gets fired or has any danger, it will not abandon its couple. So they normally get fired and die together.

Current Status :

Conservation Actions Underway CITES Appendix II. CMS Appendix II. It occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range, importantly Ang Trapeang Thmor, Cambodia, and Tram Chim National Park, Vietnam, which seasonally support the majority of the Indochinese population. A proposed 238,374-ha conservation reserve for the species in the Kampong Trach IBA, Cambodia, was demarcated in 2006, awaiting a ministerial decree (Anon. 2006b). Patrols have since been carried out, and environmental education is ongoing in the area (Anon. 2006b). Following the discovery of a major non-breeding population in the Basaac river floodplain of the Mekong Delta, in Borei Chulsar and Koh Andeth districts, Takeo province, during surveys in 2001-2002, a workshop was organised and a 9,275-ha protected area was proposed and subsequently went for approval (Anon. 2002). In 2003, protection was proposed for Hon Chong grassland (Anon 2003). Conservation awareness campaigns have been initiated in India, Nepal, Laos and Cambodia. Nest protection schemes in India have proven successful (Sundar and Choudhury 2003). In 2004–2005 protection of 22 nests by volunteer in the Kota district, Rajasthan resulted in the successful fledging of 19 chicks (Kaur et al. 2008). National surveys have recently been conducted in India and Cambodia, and detailed studies on species requirements are ongoing in India and Nepal (K. S. G. Sundar in litt. 2007). In Myanmar, Buddhist monks have increased local respect for cranes and many nests are protected when they would otherwise be destroyed to prevent damage to rice paddies (Archibald et al. 2003). Since 1997, annual roost counts have been conducted on the Atherton Tableland in the far north of Queensland during the non-breeding season (E. Scambler in litt. 2007). In 2008 the Atherton Tablelands Important Bird Area was established based on population distribution data from the annual counts, and continuing counts from 2009 monitor the IBA and surrounding sites. Authorities have flagged particular sections of powerline after Sarus Crane deaths or injuries were reported by concerned observers in the IBA. The Australian Crane Network (website http://ozcranes.net/) established in 2005, remains a contact point for crane researchers, landowners and interested individuals, including international networks; and provides updates on ongoing and completed research and conservation issues (E. Scambler in litt. 2016). Although state and federal authorities list Sarus Crane as “Common” or “Least Concern” wildlife, it is included as a migratory species covered by international treaties to which Australia is a signatory (E. Scambler in litt. 2016). Proponents of development proposals must therefore address potential impacts and conservation groups are approved parties to submit objections at both state and federal levels In Thailand, a captive breeding programme is underway at Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo with the intention of establishing a wild population in the country (Siri-Arunrat 2009). Conservation Actions Proposed Conduct further surveys in northern Cambodia, southern Laos and southern Vietnam to identify key sites. Control pesticide use and industrial effluent disposal around feeding areas. Upgrade to CITES Appendix I, and strictly control local, national and international trade (Sundar and Choudhury 2003). Target further conservation awareness campaigns at communities in and around important sites (Sundar et al. 2000, Sundar and Choudhury 2003, Khacher 2006), and educate private landowners (Sundar and Choudhury 2003). Encourage a mosaic of small natural wetlands in heavily farmed areas (Sundar et al. 2000), as pairs will nest in wetlands as small as 1 ha (Archibald et al. 2003). Collect baseline data on ecology (Sundar et al. 2000). Improve protection of wetlands and other key habitats (Sundar and Choudhury 2003). Carry out restoration of deteriorating wetlands (Sundar and Choudhury 2003). Encourage nest protection by farmers and amateur ornithologists (Khacher 2006). Consider compensating farmers for real or expected crop damage (Khacher 2006), although this may change attitudes to the species to its detriment (K. S. G. Sundar in litt. 2007). Captive rearing programmes could be considered (Khacher 2006), although opinion is split (Sundar and Choudhury 2003), and such efforts may be futile in the face of existing threats (K. S. G. Sundar in litt. 2007). Establish a more certain estimate of the Australian population and its trends (Grant 2005).

Taxonomy

CLASS : Aves

ORDER : Gruiformes

FAMILY : Gruidae

GENUS : Grus

SPECIES : Sarus Crane (Grus antigone)

Conservation status : Vulnerable

Reproductive :

The Sarus Crane breeds in the raining season. Both male and female will dance which is the courting behavior. The nest for laying eggs has a large size, made of tree leaves and grass leaves, and small branches weaving together. It lays 1 to 3 eggs each time.

Size and weight :

Is a large and tall bird.

Reference :

For more information

Point of view :


Update : 11 April 2017